Valdres Roots: Enclosure, Ancestral Displacement, & Domestication

by James Lindenschmidt

“Most people can find in their genealogy or in their own lives some point when their ancestors or they themselves were forced from lands and social relations that provided subsistence without having to sell either one’s products or oneself, i.e., they suffered Enclosure. Without these moments of force, money would have remained a marginal aspect of human history. These moments were mostly of brutal violence, sometimes quick (with bombs, cannon, musket or whip), sometimes slower (with famine, deepening penury, plague), which led to the terrorized flight from the land, from the burnt-out village, from the street full of starving or plague-ridden bodies, to slave ships, to reservations, to factories, to plantations. This flight ended with “producers becoming more dependent on exchange” since they had no other way to survive but by either selling their products or selling themselves or being sold. Thus did “exchange become more independent of them,” its transcendental power arising from the unreversed violence that drove “everyone” into the monetary system.”
George Caffentzis, “The Power Of Money: Debt and Enclosure,” In Letters Of Blood & Fire

It is spring, 1870. My great-grandfather, Mons Olsen Fuglie, then an 8 1/2 year old boy, left his ancestral home in Valdres, Norway, traveling south to Kristiana (what had been, and is now, called Oslo). He boarded the Argonault under the command of Captain S.W. Flood, bound from Kristiana to land in Quebec, before continuing the journey to their new life in Minnesota. The journey across the Atlantic took two months, with 237 passengers aboard a ship whose length was 147.5 feet and beam 29 feet, depth of 11 feet. With Mons were his 3 siblings, his mother Ambjor Monsdatter and his father Ole Arneson. Pre-industrial transatlantic travel was grueling, so much so that Ole was weakened from the journey and collapsed, 25 days after landing in Minnesota, dying of what they called heat stroke. My great-grandfather thus grew up on a new continent, in a new ecosystem, in a place with new languages, without his father.

Ancestral Homelands?

Does this look like an ancestral homeland to you? It's where I grew up, seen from above with technology.
Does this look like an ancestral homeland to you? It’s where I grew up, seen from above with the aid of technology. I moved here with my family when I was 8. Image created by the author.

When I was growing up in a midwestern middle class suburbia of the 70s and 80s, I don’t remember hearing much about displacement. When we did, it was usually in the context of studying the standardized, whitewashed account of slavery in the Americas, where African people were kidnapped from their homelands, taken against their will in slave ships across the Atlantic, and inserted into the capitalist system as slaves. In one sense, I was lucky that my high school had a good racial mixture of people. European-Americans like myself were the majority, but there were a lot of African-Americans and Asian-Americans as well. Despite an interest in my genealogy as a child, I never thought much about displacement as it applies to my own life and ancestry until the past decade or two. It is no accident that I have also spent this time cultivating my connection with place, as part of my spiritual practice.

It is also no accident that this spiritual connection with place was developed around the same time I moved to Maine. Maine is an extraordinary place, with some astounding ecosystems and nature spirits. I have an ocean, beaches (both sandy and rocky), marshlands, mountains, rivers, forests, springs, small cities, lakes, ponds, parks, trails, and farms all well within an hour’s drive of my home. I have spent more time in nature in the 1/3 of my life in Maine than all the other places I have lived or visited combined. I have slowly picked up a rudimentary knowledge of the ecosystem, learning to identify plants, trees, animal tracks, scat, game trails, and geological formations. I find it fascinating, but despite all I’ve learned I know that my knowledge is dwarfed by the knowledge any child who has seen 8 summers in an indigenous culture with an ancestral connection to place would have. Despite my increasing comfort level with the ecosystem here in Maine, I know and recognize that I am “from away” (in the local parlance). As beautiful as Maine is, and as much as I love “my” 2 acres of it, I know that on some level — the most primal, ancestral level — that I don’t really belong here. I have no doubt that the Arossagunticook people who lived here for hundreds of generations prior to the arrival of the Europeans would concur.

Maine is also as close as I can get to my ancestral homelands without leaving the US. I’m sure the fact that I ended up here is a coincidence. Of course.

Valdres Roots & Husfolk

“The visitor to Valdres … by traversing its whole length between Spirilen and the wilds where Sogn meets Gudbrandsdalen, with excursions into the many spots of beauty or grandeur on either side, … has the opportunity of seeing some of the best that is to be found of a practically all elements of scenic attractions that Norway offers the sightseer anywhere, and he will understand why the native of Valdres thinks his Valley the most beautiful region of all the old Fatherland.”
Andrew A. Veblen, Book of Valdris, p 19
Picture of Lake Helin in Vang, Vestre Slidre, Valdres, Norway. Taken on top of Åkslefjellet showing Mountain Grindane in the North and Gilafjellet to the right (east). Photo by Trarir. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Picture of Lake Helin in Vang, Vestre Slidre, Valdres, Norway. Taken on top of Åkslefjellet showing Mountain Grindane in the North and Gilafjellet to the right (east). Photo by Trarir. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license.

For dozens of generations, my Norwegian ancestors were Husfolk — “land tenants” who subsisted in mostly feudal arrangements with the landed lords — in Valdres, a fogderi (county) in southern, central Norway, just south of the Jotunheimen mountains. From 1750-1850, the population of Norway doubled, from about 700,000 to 1.4 million. This was the period of Enclosure in Norway, which drove my ancestors from their subsistence on the land, and destroyed the ancestral link they had with it. Much of the potential farmland, that had lain uncultivated and intact since the Black Plague in the 1300s, was enclosed as private property. For the Husfolk, this gave them fewer options; since they didn’t own land and had no way to buy it, they could only be subsumed within the labor exploitation of capitalism. Yet, industry hadn’t really come to Norway, certainly not to the Valdres valley away from the cities. As a result of the lack of “opportunity” in Norway, 900,000 Norwegians emigrated to America between 1825-1914, such that by 1920, there were more people in America descendent from Valdres than there were people left in Valdres.

One can therefore see the appeal for the landless Norwegians to emigrate to America, particularly in post-slavery America, the land of “manifest destiny,” provided that the Europeans were courageous (or desperate) enough to risk the frontier, in its wildness and with the last remaining packets of resistance from the Indigenous peoples of the continent protecting their ancestral claims to the land. My ancestors, therefore, left Norway for both sides of the capitalist enclosure coin. Norway had been completely enclosed, and there were too many people there without land rights struggling to eke out a living. On the other hand, in the so-called New World (or if you prefer, Turtle Island), enclosure hadn’t yet begun if you went far enough west, where there remained millions of acres of fertile land and far fewer Europeans to claim them. So while my ancestors were being pushed out of Norway, they were also being pulled toward Minnesota.

Blood Roots & Mud Roots

“The ancestors are such an important part of our spiritual tradition. When we call to our ancestors in ritual and prayers, we may be asking for specific guidance from those who are conscious of our existence and coherent in their form, but perhaps more poignantly we are waking our own perception to their unceasing presence. We speak of their stories humming in our blood and bones, and this is true in terms of our genetic inheritance, yet felt too in the sense of their presence being everywhere. We speak of the breath we breathe having been breathed by our ancestors, and in this too we accept the practical logic of our globe’s one body of air, yet also in the poetry and omnipresence of their consciousness.”
Emma Restall-Orr, Living Druidry, p 204-5.

I never knew my grandfather, Milton. Cancer claimed him long before I was born, when my mother was 12. Mons, Milton’s father, also died when Milton was a child, having been kicked by a horse. So along with Ole, who died shortly after arriving in Minnesota, the three consecutive generations preceding me all grew up without their paternal connection to their homeland. This is, through my mother, grandfather, and great-grandfather, my connection to Valdres. I find it interesting that despite these generations of disconnect, I feel the strongest connection to this quarter of my family tree, over and above my Irish (Mom’s Mom’s side) and German (Dad’s side) ancestry.

"Albrecht Dürer, The Fall Of Man, 1510. This powerful scene, on the expulsion of Adam & Eve from the Garden of Eden, evokes the expulsion of the peasantry from its common lands, which was starting to occur across western Europe at the very time when Dürer was producing this work." -- commentary by Silvia Federici
Albrecht Dürer, The Fall Of Man, 1510. “This powerful scene, on the expulsion of Adam & Eve from the Garden of Eden, evokes the expulsion of the peasantry from its common lands, which was starting to occur across western Europe at the very time when Dürer was producing this work.” — commentary by Silvia Federici

In Druidry, we talk about Mud Roots and Blood Roots. Mud Roots are a connection to a particular place. Blood Roots are those who came before, the ancestors. For more than a thousand years, as far back past history and into mythology as we can see, up to the late 19th century, these Blood and Mud Roots were intertwined in Valdres, until the connection was broken by the capitalist enclosure movement. Think about that for a moment. This ancestral connection to place was strong enough to withstand centuries of hardship, famine, plague, warfare, the imposition of Christianity by force (spearheaded by Olaf the Saint, another one of my ancestors, but that’s another story), not to mention a thousand harsh Norwegian winters, only to finally be destroyed by something so powerful, yet so insidious, that people today have to be taught what “enclosure” means. The notion of “private property” remains so abstracted, such a given, that many believe it has always existed, assuming that feudal Lords “owned” property in the same way as today’s landlords, and that serfs were much closer to slave status than we ever could be in these enlightened times. On the contrary, as Silvia Federici reminds us:

The most important aspect of serfdom, from the viewpoint of the changes it introduced in the master-servant relation, is that it gave the serfs direct access to the means of their reproduction. In exchange for the work which they were bound to do on the lords’ land (the demesne), the serfs received a plot of land (mansus or hide) which they could use to support themselves, and pass down to their children…. Having the effective use and possession of a plot of land meant that the serfs could always support themselves and, even at the peak of their confrontations with the lords, they could not easily be forced to bend because of the fear of starvation. True, the lord could throw recalcitrant serfs off the land, but this was rarely done, given the difficulty of recruiting new laborers in a fairly closed economy and the collective nature of peasant struggles.”
Silvia Federici, Caliban & The Witch, 23-4).

The Husfolk of Valdres, therefore, were not slaves, or mere servants of the lordly class in Norway. There was a powerful bond between them and their place, a bond that, by the mid-1800s, after more than a century of capitalism and enclosure, had grown weak enough that more than half the population of Norway had been displaced.

It is only in the past 300 years — far less than 1% of homo sapiens time on this planet — that we must distinguish between mud roots and blood roots. Prior to that, as rates of migration were much slower, they were much more intimately intertwined.

Domestication & The Capitalist Accumulation of Labor

“In the aftermath of the Black Death, every European country began to condemn idleness, and to persecute vagabondage, begging, and refusal of work. England took the initiative with the Statute of 1349 that condemned high wages and idleness (author’s note: with higher wages, workers could work fewer hours and therefore had more leisure time), establishing that those who did not work, and did not have any means of survival, had to accept work. Similar ordinances were issued in France in 1351, when it was recommended that people should not give food or hostel to healthy beggars and vagabonds. A further ordinance in 1354 established that those who remained idle, passing their time in taverns, playing dice or begging, had to accept work or face the consequences; first offenders would be put in prison on bread and water, while second offenders would be put in the stocks, and third offenders would be branded on the forehead.”
Silvia Federici, Caliban & The Witch, 57-8.

After my great-grandfather Mons settled in Minnesota, where he lived until he died in 1925, he raised a large family there. But displacement caused by capitalism would strike again, this time in the form of the Great Depression. It would cause my grandfather to leave most of his family in Minnesota and settle in Ohio with his sister and her husband. In due course, he met my grandmother, married, and started a family before his premature death in 1958.

So of course, the winners of this game of severing ancestral connections to place are, and continue to be, the capitalists. A people united with the land they occupy will give much more formidable resistance to enclosure, accumulation of land and labor, and exploitation of all the resources it can than a divided, domesticated people severed from their ancestral place. Capitalism requires workers to exploit, and most people, given the choice, will not enter into such an exploitative relationship. Therefore, the choice had to go, and capitalism had to make people more dependent on what they were offering. Human domestication, via displacement and other strategies, had to be stepped up to a new level.

By most estimates, human domestication has been underway for 10,000 years, but it has accelerated dramatically in the capitalist era. Ostensibly, it doesn’t matter where we live now. Just in my generation of my family, a few stayed in Ohio (where they’d been for only 2 generations), but I have siblings or cousins in Indiana, California, Kentucky, Minnesota, and Missouri. As strangers in strange lands, our domestication and dependence on the infrastructures of industrialized production grows more complete and absolute, such that not only are we uprooted from our ancestral homelands, but our connection with any place at all is broken. How many of us have a sense of place, where we humans are part of an ecosystem, when the majority of us go not to the land for subsistence, but to the grocery store, buying factory-farmed food that has traveled thousands of miles before landing on the shelves?

Domestication is what happens when a connection to land is severed, and subsistence, provided by an industrial infrastructure, becomes abstracted from place. At one time, exile was a fate as bad as, or worse than, death, because it meant one had little or no access to subsistence via the tribe, a collection of people working together for the common good. In this new, domesticated world, access to the tribe is mediated by money. Those without money — the poor among us — are on some level exiles who must fend for themselves. And the quickest way to end one’s exile is to allow oneself to be (re-)assimilated into the capitalist system of labor exploitation.

Looking Ahead

My daughter, unlike I who am still “from away,” is a Mainer. She was born in Portland and has never lived more than 20 miles from the city of her birth. She still most strongly resonates with the streets of Portland, rather than the far more rural area where we live now (check out her music, by the way, it’s really good, said the proud immediate ancestor). I wonder, having grown up in this place, how her children and subsequent generations will be connected to their places, and whether their place will be in Maine.

The world is undone. In the age of neoliberal capitalism, otherwise known as “globalization,” our people and our cultures are scattered to the four winds. Most ancestries in the 21st century are intertwined and complex; the stories I have told of my ancestors above are but one branch of my genealogy. Virtually everyone is, in some way, a victim of ancestral displacement. My point is not to level out the differences between the different cultural victims of displacement, colonialism, and capitalist enclosure. While nearly all people of nearly all cultures, races, ethnicities, and groups have now experienced displacement, the fact is that my white ancestors who arrived in Minnesota found themselves inserted into a different place in the power hierarchy than earlier peoples from Africa, kidnapped from their ancestral homeland, to be slaves in the Americas.

Re-enchanting the world will not occur in an office, in the checkout queue at Whole Foods, or in the blogosphere. It will require humans to get out into nature, and work ceaselessly to re-establish relationship with what they find there. There are some positives we can take from this situation we find ourselves in — for instance, most geneticists agree that diversity in our gene pools is a good thing — but until we exist in better relationship with our place, rewild ourselves, resist our domestication by rejecting the infrastructures of capitalism where we can, and begin re-weaving an ancestral connection to place for future generations, the world will remain little more than something to be owned and exploited.

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23 thoughts on “Valdres Roots: Enclosure, Ancestral Displacement, & Domestication

  1. This disconnection from any particular place or way of life is constantly sold to us as a benefit, a liberation from the trap of tradition – yet it’s at the root of the alienation people seem to constantly feel.

    Liked by 3 people

  2. It is interesting that you remark how you only really got connected to the land once you moved to Maine later in life. I grew up in Maine, and yet I only got connected to the land once I moved out here to Oregon almost a decade ago. While Oregon is full of powerful spirits, I don’t think it’s so much about the nature of the land in this case – I have to wonder if perhaps in our current culture, without being raised to pay attention to such things, we sometimes only notice them once we move somewhere else less familiar. Which is another sad result of the whole process you discuss here.

    Liked by 3 people

    1. That’s a really good point. I think there is something there, about blind spots, when we are raised in a place without an ancestral connection to it. Only in the novelty of a new place can we perceive beauty and connection.

      Liked by 2 people

      1. I am thoroughly urban, and perhaps for that reason have the sense of cross-pollinating my beloved natural places as I journey between them. They seem to enjoy being connected to one another.

        Liked by 1 person

      2. I suppose it varies. I had a sort of inverse thing happen which made the connection obvious. I always felt connected to the place I grew up, and I could never really connect the same way to other places I lived as an adult – it’s why I came back to Oregon. The distressing lack of connection in other places became blatant to me before I became aware of spirits. (Funny thing, tho – parts of Maine were the only parts of the northeastern US that kindasorta felt “right” to me.)


  3. Your title here immediately caught my eye, because more than 20 years ago, in high school band, we played a march called “Valdres.” So, I’d at least heard of the region, even if I didn’t know the specifics! Thank you for sharing more of the story of its people, i.e. your own ancestors.

    I know what you mean, though. I’m about to move (in the next three days), and while I’ll still be in the general area that I’ve lived most of my life, and in fact will be returning to the town where I was born and grew up, it’s also not the same at all. One of the reasons that the apartment I’m moving into is so “good” is because it’s across the street from one of the supermarkets, and while it’s a locally-owned one and not a major chain store, it’s also one that, for example, has specifically and deliberately poorer quality produce and such so that it doesn’t put off its expected clientele, i.e. the people who will be my neighbors who don’t have cars or a lot of money and walk or take the bus everywhere (like I do). And in that largest town on the island, if I want to buy anything that isn’t either from Home Depot or a simple house ware that I can get at a supermarket, the only option is Mall-Wart, where I will not willingly set foot, which has only come in during the last decade (and destroyed a big area of wetlands in order to set up shop, while running a lot of local businesses out of town, and even the K-Mart that we used to have).

    At the same time as I’ll be “more placed” by this move, and will be returning to my own mud roots in many respects, I’ll also be more displaced by it. The town isn’t what it was when I was growing up there, and in so many ways keeps becoming more and more abstracted from its own roots and history, and often at the expense of the remains and remembrance of indigenous peoples who lived there…which I wrote about a bit here, if you’re interested.

    In any case, thank you for a good read as a useful procrastination from having to continue sorting and packing, an activity that I hate almost more than anything, having done it 15 times in the last 21 years.

    Liked by 2 people

  4. I wonder what you make of Australians, the large majority of whom even today are dsiplaced persons or the recent decendants of displaced persons; whether the sons and daughters of convicts sent to the worlds biggest prison or the sons and daughters of ATSI peoples who have been forced to move away from their ancestral lands or the more modern migrants fleeing to a better life for themselves Australians are for the most part a culture of displaced persons.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hi Alan, I don’t pretend to know much about the specific cultures in Australia, but your report that most australians have experienced ancestral displacement is not a surprise to me. I think such displacement is the case for most humans today. Thanks for reading!


  5. Thank you so much for writing this beautiful piece. During my adolescence I spent a lot of time wondering how it came to be that everyone was expected to do wage labour to survive, and why so few people seemed to question this state of affairs. I didn’t learn about enclosure until I was in my 40s, and even then it was only because I spent a great deal of time digging through obscure books and articles in hopes of finding some answers that made sense.

    My maternal ancestral line hails from Sweden; my great-grandparents came to the USA in 1870. Though I was born and raised in the US, I know on a very primal level that I don’t really belong here and will never belong here in the way I’d like to belong to a place, and this knowledge haunts me. It’s a lonely feeling sometimes, as no one else in my family or social circle seems to feel this way. I feel such a strong connection to my Swedish ancestors, and such a deep yearning to live in the lands where they originally came from, that I have made it my mission to get “back” to Sweden before I die. I have even felt that there are land spirits there that are trying to communicate with me, and need my help. Perhaps it’s a step toward healing the wounds of ancestral displacement? I’d like to think so…

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks for reading! Yes, there were a lot of Scandinavian peoples who were displaced in that time period (1870s). I wonder how many hundreds of thousands — or millions — of present day North Americans can trace their ancestry to that time & place?

      Liked by 1 person

  6. This a really interesting piece. The way you have approached the themes of enclosure and displacement through family history really drives home the reality of their effects. I imagine in your place I wouldn’t have seen myself as displaced until looking back… My parents have always chosen where to live, although this has always been determined by employment. If it wasn’t for that factor they wouldn’t have moved from Cornwall to Lancashire. This has made me think about tracing the roots of ancestry back to my folks who lived at the time of enclosure. Very inspiring, and as stated above, much food for thought!


    1. Thanks for reading, Lorna. I wonder how much of it has to do with the fact that you are still in the UK (I believe). Virtually everyone here in the US, except for the Native Americans who were mostly wiped out, can trace their ancestry to other places on the planet. Good luck with your genealogy, it is a great practice! I have enjoyed it immensely.


  7. Wow, really nice essay Jim. I would say though, don’t despair. I think its possible to ground yourself in your place if you work at it, and despite the capitalist claims that we now live in the “best of all possible worlds” change is inevitable. Singing with the birds and hugging the trees is resistance. Your descendants will have a better world.


    Matt from Turner

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks for reading Matt. I agree it’s possible to ground oneself in a place, and it’s a skill one can practice & cultivate. Indeed, doing so has been an essential part of my practice over the past several years, particularly as my own mobility has improved. That’s not quite the same thing as an ancestral connection however, with knowledgeable elders who can pass down ancestral wisdom. Regardless, we all find ourselves in a certain context, and must make the best of it. I love your form of resistance! You damn treehugging hippie. 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

  8. Hi James, I really enjoyed reading your article, and also about your Norwegian ancestry. I have heard and read about the push-pull effect that contributed to the mass migration of Norwegians to America; but nothing about ‘enclosure’. It was largely looked upon as “Amerika Feber” (American fever). I am currently residing in Norway, and have spent some time hiking the lands of my ancestors, places where they lived and farmed for 500 plus years. It was satisfying in a way I had not expected, but also tinged with some sadness that little information remains about their lives. Nevertheless, the local history books provide some insight into their daily fight for survival, with their large infant mortality rate and short life spans. A Land-Use Census would list for a typical farm: 1 horse, 4 cows, 15 sheep, 8 goats, 1 pig, 200 kg rye, 1000 kg of barley, and 2000 kg potatoes, for example. My great grandfather left this and homesteaded in North Dakota, eventually living through miscellaneous plagues, the dust bowl and great depression. They no doubt experienced some yearnings for the old country from time to time. By the way, you and I share the same roots. You came from Mons; I from Ole (my mother is a sister to Winton).

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks for reading, Paul! Very glad to hear of your travels to Norway. I hope to visit Valdres one of these days…. I haven’t had much luck contacting Winton. If you communicate with him, tell him I’d very much like to speak with him about our ancestry one of these days!


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