The Inalienable Right to Persecute


“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

-Evelyn Beatrice Hall

A piece on this site about the uncomfortable fact that some neo-fascists recruit through Paganism has stirred up quite some resentment.

I’ve waded through some of the back-and-forth – are Pagans inexcusably blasé towards the extreme right? Does anti-fascist zeal suppress free speech? Is truly apolitical religion impossible, or does putting the Gods first imply leaving social concerns second? Reading these arguments, I started recalling a situation from several years ago, back in college in conservative small-town Texas.

Unsurprisingly, my school hosted a profoundly Christian social milieu, including a large evangelical Protestant contingent. I was the only open trans woman there, and one of only three or so Pagans. My friend, an aspiring goði, audaciously started holding semi-public blótar on Ásatrú holidays, and a community accrued around the celebrations.

Most of us weren’t even Pagan, let alone Ásatrú. However, we all shared a feeling of alienation from the college at large: most of us were disabled people, people of color, and/or queer, not to mention unsympathetic to the hegemonic religious culture. Passing the drinking horn, we built a sense of home.

We shared campus with a sect affiliated to the New Apostolic Reformation, a theocratic Pentecostal Christian movement with a penchant for military imagery (famously documented in the film Jesus Camp). They taught that being disabled showed that God was punishing you for wrongdoing by not healing you, that LGBT identity indicated demonic possession, and that non-Christian religions represented a Satanic conspiracy. So, they chose to target us. Along with several of my friends, I found myself declared an unholy force, in public and by name, in a proclamation of “spiritual warfare.”

“Spiritual warfare,” it turned out, meant several months of organized harassment and stalking, eventually escalating to the point of death threats and (for some of my friends) physical assault. Our opposition to their divine political-religious order rendered us fair game.

I remember them whenever people downplay religious articulations of fascism.



“Because if you don’t stand up for the stuff you don’t like, when they come for the stuff you do like, you’ve already lost.”

-Neil Gaiman

Much of the outrage at the New Right essay has referred to McCarthyism, the Satanic Panic, and notions of censorship and “enforced ideological conformity” in general. If the Pagan left is really against fascism, the critics claim, then why do they want witch hunts and political purges?

The article in question actually calls for none of those things. However, that line of thought still falls back on a central moral claim of classical liberalism, the Enlightenment political current associated with the West’s electoral-capitalist governing structures. As expressed by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, classical liberals asserted:


[T]here ought to exist the fullest liberty of professing and discussing, as a matter of ethical conviction, any doctrine, however immoral it may be considered.

Mill and his 19th-century fellows mainly concerned themselves with state restrictions on religious meetings and political publications. Nonetheless, the broad acceptance of that ethic has led to its application well beyond public policy. Pagan anti-fascists say that racism has no place in our religions, but we all know that no one is about to get arrested for saying “Thor dislikes immigrants.” Censorship, properly defined, isn’t at stake. Rather, the classical liberal “live and let live” attitude has been expanded to suggest that Pagan organizations, events, and communities have no more right to treat certain ideas as unacceptable than the government itself does.

Holding this classical liberal attitude implies little about anyone’s actual political program. Generally speaking, it represents the “common sense” consensus across most belief systems in electoral-capitalist countries. Left, right, or center, virtually everybody in these societies shares the classical liberal sensibility that people should be able to form and express their own particular opinions about things, and no one has any business stopping them. But what does this outlook have to do with the fascist presence in Paganism?



“To disagree, one doesn’t have to be disagreeable.”

-Barry Goldwater

The goals of fascists and reactionaries of any sort (whether New Rightists or old-fashioned blackshirts) aren’t liberal in any sense. However, the Pagan far right knows that the classical liberal ethic can be manipulated for their benefit. When reactionaries invoke coexistence, the toleration of disagreement, and setting aside political differences in religious settings, don’t accept it on face value. The far right’s raison d’être is the disempowerment of social minorities. They might pursue this through racist theology in one place and street violence (or electoral politics) in another, but they never genuinely accept inclusivity or tolerance.

However, some currents – for instance, New Right-aligned Pagans – have wised up to the fact that few people who aren’t already reactionaries will accept those goals if they’re plainly stated. So, they get clever. Pagan far rightists know that most other Pagans would never agree with a policy of “whites only, no queers.” They also know that the Pagan left will never stop calling their ideas what they are: racist and misogynistic.

So, clever reactionaries triangulate. They suggest that they only want to coexist with non-fascist Pagans, but that those nasty left-wingers are trying to kick people out just for disagreeing. They invoke the classical liberal conscience of the majority and frame their practices as basically harmless, only a threat to people who can’t handle freedom of speech.

Of course, their practices are not harmless. Reactionaries aim to suppress social minorities however they can. While, through calculated appeals to “free expression,” they use liberal largesse as cover and try to discredit their critics, they keep quietly carrying out their goals all the while. Let’s glance at a few examples:

  • Folkish Heathens don’t simply advocate for the exclusion of people of color – they practice it. There is nothing abstract about the way that Folkish Heathen groups turn away non-white seekers and tell Heathens of color that they should not practice their chosen religion. While they materially enact a program of racist exclusion, though, their mainline coreligionists shield them by behaving as if the issue at hand is merely one of belief and disagreement. So, for the sake of “tolerance,” racist discrimination continues – and meanwhile, Folkish Heathenry spills over into secular political racism.
  • Trans-Exclusionary Radical Feminists (TERFs) don’t limit themselves to rhetorical attacks on trans women. For decades, TERF factions of Dianic Witchcraft have actively turned away trans seekers and told trans women that we have no place in feminism, women’s spaces, or feminist-oriented Paganism. When they hide behind classical liberal notions of “reasonable people disagreeing reasonably,” they obscure the reality of discrimination behind their words. And, of course, this also contributes to larger public policy; Goddess Movement TERFs align with secular TERFs and even, sometimes, with right-wing Christians to oppose trans rights. “Civility” is a red herring meant to obscure their actions’ destructive consequences.
  • As previously discussed on this site, the leadership of the Left Hand Path Consortium, in the name of “opposing censorship” and permitting “controversial” ideas to be expressed, invited a neo-fascist politician to speak at its conference. His graphic threats of violence eventually led them to withdraw the invitation for legal reasons, but they have already publicly equated “free expression” with their collaborating with someone who himself works with the swastika-sporting, sieg-heiling National Socialist Movement.

Each time, we see reactionaries invoking classical liberal ideas to deflect criticism, and successfully winning over large groups of non-fascist Pagans. While lauding tolerance and freedom as a defensive strategy, the reactionaries are already implementing an agenda of exclusion, discrimination, and targeted disempowerment. Further, in each case, these far rightists are translating their bases of social support within parts of Paganism into larger, secular political projects aimed at imposing their beliefs on everybody.

Most of the people objecting to the New Right essay, like most Pagans generally, believe in free speech as a matter of principle. Intuitively comparing strident anti-fascism to censorship would seem to follow from that value. Fascists, however, don’t believe in free speech. They don’t believe in free and open participation, and their invocation of classical liberal values is purely opportunistic.

Whenever fascists are tolerated, they enact discrimination. When the rest of us put up with them, we become complicit. Who actually threatens free speech and diversity of opinion: the people who actively drive minority groups away, or the people who point out how wrong that is?

The far right is counting on you to pick the latter.



“I, like you, will defend the right of any American to openly practise & preach any political philosophy from monarchy to anarchy. But this is not the case with regard to the communist.”

-Ronald Reagan on the Hollywood Blacklist

Pagan reactionaries may reject classical liberal values, but they’re canny enough to manipulate them. However, they know they can’t do the same with radicals who commit themselves to explicit anti-fascism. They know that for reactionary Paganism to flourish, the Pagan left needs to be pushed out.

So, they get shrewd: invoking freedom and pluralism, they mischaracterize the left as anti-liberty and (with no sense of irony) McCarthyite, then sit back. The well-intentioned liberal majority attacks the left for them. Suddenly, there’s no need to spend much time dealing with critics. Instead, they can get back to doing what they wanted all along – implementing their policies of exclusion and building support for racist and chauvinist politics. They outsource their fights to the liberal majority.

The notion that the far left is a uniquely dangerous threat retains enormous cultural resonance. After all, it’s not as if the capitalist-owned media has much inclination to portray socialists and communists as anything but spies and traitors, or anarchists as much besides domestic terrorists. The ownership class’s use of the schools, the government, and the mass media primes everyone to distrust the left. Capitalism would rather you not take its dissidents seriously. So, when far rightists evoke these images, they do so on purpose – they know it works. They don’t themselves enjoy a dominant position within Paganism (much as they’d like to), but they get by without one. They just count on high-minded liberals to punish anti-fascists for them.

Fascists don’t need you to be a fascist. They just need you to pick the same enemies.



“Opponents [of a bill dismantling anti-discrimination protections] would have condemned it, but in doing so confirmed that the modern secular left condemns all religious freedoms that impede their agenda, and that the RFRA truly has nothing to do with hate or discrimination.”

-Ken Blackwell, Senior Fellow, Family Research Council

Back in Texas, my friends and I didn’t take the New Apostolic Reformation harassment without protest. We implored our moderate and liberal Christian friends to speak out against their fellow Christians’ behavior, and even took the situation to the college administration. Every time, we got the same response: the sect espoused “offensive ideas,” but we should “respect their religious freedom” and not “punish them for their beliefs.

But it was never a matter of belief. No one had to take it on faith that they were threatening us. After a while, the mix of stalking, occasional physical violence, and indifferent peers and administrators wore us down. Some of us dropped out of school entirely. At least one had a full-fledged psychiatric breakdown. I had to take a leave of absence halfway through one semester. And a couple of years later, I found out that most of the sects’ members had moved out of state together, where their group had finally collapsed, revealing rampant sexual abuse and even sparking a murder investigation. “Offensive ideas” indeed.

Most of us can quite happily “agree to disagree.” Reactionaries want you to take that attitude towards them, but they won’t extend it to the demographics they hate. Just as my school’s ignoring religiously-motivated violence allowed it to escalate, so does our tolerating ideologies of violence and discrimination enable their ongoing implementation. Sure, there will always be people with destructive worldviews, and we can’t expect to win them all over. But they can’t enact their agendas alone. Without a social climate that lets them flourish, they would find themselves entirely marginal and effectively too isolated to function.

If each one of us, far left or not, said, whenever we encountered reactionary ideas, As your coreligionist and a fellow practitioner of our tradition, these notions don’t belong here,” then crypto-fascist groups would be unable to discriminate, unable to recruit, and eventually unable to survive. They need the tacit complicity of the non-fascist majority in order to keep existing (and recruiting). Among Pagans, they’ve been getting it. Of course, the majority retains the power to reject them.

We only need the will.



Sophia Burns

Sophia Burns is a galla, vowed to serve Attis and Kybele, and a Greco-Phrygian polytheist. After coming out in the small-town South, she moved to Seattle, where she is active in the trans lesbian community. Other than writing for Gods&Radicals, Sophia’s activities include political organizing, attending nursing school, and spending time with her partners, friends, and chosen family.

Sophia Burns is one of the authors who will appear in A Beautiful Resistance: The Fire is Here.

10 thoughts on “The Inalienable Right to Persecute

  1. It’s the same with the protests against Trump’s campaign – it seems that liberals would rather stand in the way and preach at us than let us do anything to stop the fascists while we still have a chance. It’s an amazing display of self-sabotage.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Now I await the explosion on the other side, which no doubt will come. However no one ever stopped bullying by being nice to the bully. I keep track of both sides of the issue.

    The argument against any form of political activism is an old one, going back to Wicca in the 1970s as Wiccans complained about Starhawk’s Activism, and the Reclaiming Tradition. It was the same argument that politics did not belong in religion, even as we were seeing Conservative Christians start their political attacks on those that they disagreed with and the beginning of the Moral majority and the great Satanic Child Abuse scare.

    Liked by 3 people

  3. Excellent piece! What is needed, imo, is not tolerance but transparency and consistency. What one says anywhere, one should say everywhere.
    I once attended a talk by locally-important Pagans about “passing” in the workplace. I and a few others (my statement was that I am just myself 24/7, another’s was that who would want a job where one’s religion had to be hidden) were seen to be unrealistic and silly, unfortunately.


    1. I think that depends on how safe it would be for the person in question. If your survival depends on keeping your job and your boss is a Fundamentalist Christian, you could be taking a big risk.


  4. great article. i have long thought there is a lot of ethnic and class bigotry inherent in many pagans groups. who was the founder of wicca? a british empire adminstrator in burma and the east during some very turbulent liberation movements, but not a word about it from mssr gardner. lots of talk of finding the old religion in the once cymric speaking area of south britian, but oddly most of his terms come from gaelic, a language never spoken anywhere near there. a strange combination of cultural approprition and imperial indifference to the often genocidal effects of the empire. if you talk openly about these things you will be a target for pagan bullying from the non thinking traditionalist. (admirably many gardnarians have moved on and are quite aware that they have been creating their tradition as they went along–which is a fine and creative thin g to do, but if one does not recognize these issues then you will lack the intellectual and spiritual tools to actually consider any issues round ethnic or class discrimination and liberation and thereby be inherently far right on almost every issue.(free speech, class war, enviornmental protection, education, ethnic discrimination–take your pick).

    it is meaningfull to acquire the intelluctual and spititual tool at actually understand things deeply. it’s called insight. without it why bother(in my not nearly humble enough opinion). i urge every one the read john ralston saul’s books”unconscious civilization” and “voltaire’s bastards”. about how our mainstream education and knowledge has made insightfull discussion nigh onto impossible without long and torturous explainations that few will sit still to listen to.

    the example of starhawk is a great example. when i was young and foolish i went to many logging protests. who were the helpers and organizers? starhawk herself, and many freinds of starhawk or similar types and quakers and buddhists who wasn’t there?pretty much every other type of pagan.

    and who in british columbia at least is often attacking native activists with cheap shot attacks? all the other pagans except the said starhawk and friends(plus quakers and buddhists). a lot of native activists have had very rough lives, often made worse by extremes that no anglo will ever experience, hence easy targets for slander. and easy to target and then let the main stream pagans to the attack for the right wingers and bigots. to a lesser extent the same could be said about the enviornmatal activists. while our middle class friends, who face few if any actuall struggles in life pick they apart. and of course without and recongition that these issues are real the main stream become inherently far right without awareness–that’s called a lack of insight–or ignorance.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. How do we (or should) we tolerate the intolerant? It’s a tough question for sure. The fascist right in paganry has been very adept at triangulating. Most every self respecting pagan wants to protect the rights of indigenous peoples to practice their own ways. The right posits that white folks of the great European diaspora are somehow indigenous (to Gaul, or Saxony, or Jutland) and thus are oppressed when the progressives call them out on exclusionary ideology. One cannot “reconstruct”indigeny”. Either you are or you aren’t.


    1. tell me about it. i have almost given up on paganism beacuse of the celtoids. people with little actuall conection to any celtic culture except their name who set the standards and effectively marginalize those who did grow up with the culture. their authority, does ot come from growing up with gaelic or welsh language like i did? nope, does it come from growing up with traditional music? nope. does it come from growing up with some traditional pagan practices? nope. but they are hapy to exclude me and even call me a racist. not for wanting to set a standard but for wanting to participate and express my own opinions. when this happens reconstructionism becomes reconstructing anglo privledge and entitlement in the guise of being indigenous. there was a recnt article on face book aabout how most bigots don’t think they arr bigots because they have no ideological bigotry and no hate is involved. excluding is the hate.


  6. While I think that tolerance is a wonderful concept, I also live in the real world, where there comes a time when you have to stand up and fight! Throughout history we have seen those who are tolerant, suffer at the hands of those who take advantage of them!

    I will fight for those who can’t or won’t, if that makes me some kind of monster…then I can live with that!


  7. another misspent youth activity was getting a law degree. sso i did quite a few law suits because no one would. it’s important to fight for others who can’t. it is stressfull and exhausting at times. moving most people off a complaicent aqcceptance of the status quo is very difficult. fighting can be literal. i had some friend early in the cell phone era who were left martial arts guys(one girl as well), they formed a flying squad to respond to the nazi group organizing that used to show up at left wing events and engage in assaults. so the flying squad would congregate and meet violence with violence, but the flying squad were well trained. it brought the physical violence to a halt. the nazis were caught totally off guard that they could be on the recieving end. i am glad this was not in the united states, they probably come with guns down there.

    how to respond to violence from extremists is a hard one. suing the bastards does bankrupt them, but as the southern poverty law centre had found it’s the long game.


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