Labeling Government Influence: A Critique of YouTube’s New Policy

“Any reasonable definition of propaganda would include the fact that disinformation is very often produced for and by private interests.”

From Clay Hurand

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The importance of news media to democracy in the 21st century is difficult to overstate. Democracy emerges from public discourse, and the terms that constitute that public discourse are in large part brought forth and defined by mass media. It is therefore that media literacy, which is a discerning, and critical relationship to news, is essential to a functioning democracy. Media literacy does not simply involve fact-checking, it involves an understanding of ways in which information and political narratives are shaped by special interests, ideology, and power.

Social media is an increasingly popular means of receiving news. Learning and education alone account for over a billion views a day on YouTube. This means that social media platforms are becoming more responsible for the state of our political discourse, and therefore our democracy. So, when tech companies that run news-bearing platforms decide to start media literacy campaigns, it is of the utmost importance that they get it right.

At the beginning of 2018, YouTube rolled out a labeling system targeting content funded by governments in what appears to be a knee-jerk response to public outrage over the Russia-Gate scandal. News outlets such as RT, Al Jazeera, and PBS now sport warning labels beneath their content. YouTube’s new labeling system should be viewed as a harbinger of the blunders that are likely to come as big-tech corporations begin taking responsibility for promoting media literacy.

YouTube reveals its media literacy-myopia through two assumptions that undergird its labeling system. The first assumption is that the potential for propaganda or disinformation comes only from government or publicly sponsored content. That YouTube is making this assumption is evidenced by the fact that their labeling system exempts all private and or corporate-sponsored content. The second assumption, which is required to make the first, is that there is a rigidly-dualistic relationship between private and public spheres in the United States; a worldview that upon even the most superficial interrogation degrades into mere fantasy.

Regarding its new labeling system, YouTube has stated that its goal “is to equip users with additional information to help them better understand the sources of news content that they choose to watch on YouTube,” and that it will do so by labeling “videos uploaded by news broadcasters that receive some level of government or public funding.” YouTube also states that doing so is not a comment “on the publisher’s or video’s editorial direction or a government’s editorial influence.”

YouTube does not go into much more detail about the reasoning behind this policy. For example, they do not state what is significant about “government or public funding” and why videos that are publicly-funded even deserve a label. YouTube claims that it is not making a comment “on the publisher’s or video’s editorial direction or a government’s editorial influence,” despite that being the inherent function of the label. YouTube is contradicting itself, basically stating: “we are not commenting on a government’s editorial influence, but we are warning you that such influence could be present.” A spokesperson for PBS publicly criticized YouTube’s policy insisting that US government influence on PBS programming is prohibited by an internal statute. PBS spoke out against the policy most likely because the only reasonable inference to make from the labeling system is that “government or public funding,” to YouTube, signifies the potential for state-influence.

The problem with this is that by only warning viewers about state-funded content, YouTube is making the false assumption that propaganda or disinformation originates only from governments or from the public sector. YouTube does not outright state that, but by only warning viewers about state-funded outlets and not private ones, they are implicitly taking that position. Any reasonable definition of propaganda would include the fact that disinformation is very often produced for and by private interests. Boeing’s anti-union propaganda campaign on YouTube is just one of many examples of propaganda that emerges from the private sphere. Apparently, to YouTube, Boeing’s propaganda campaign does not warrant a label of any kind.

The chief problem of YouTube’s labeling system is that it depends on the implicit and utterly myopic assumption that “propaganda happens here (in the public sphere), but not here (in the private sphere).” Beyond this flaw, YouTube’s labels are wholly inconsistent even on the limited grounds that they have established. If potential government influence is what is at stake here, then there is a variety of content that has yet to be labeled.

In 2005 when The News Corporation acquired Fox Entertainment, Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal, a powerful member of the Saudi Royal family, became the company’s second largest shareholder. Upon this acquisition, Prince Alwaleed’s shareholder status transitioned from the ownership of non-voting stocks to voting stocks, meaning that Alwaleed was given direct power over the News Corporation’s governance and therefore the direction of the company. Alwaleed’s status in the News Corporation could certainly lead the public, and YouTube, to reasonably infer that he could have used his position to serve the interests of the Saudi Government. It can therefore be argued that if PBS deserves a label despite their prohibition of government-editorial influence by statute, then all of the content produced by Fox News while Alwaleed owned a significant portion of the News Corporation ought to be labeled as well.

Another blatant inconsistency in Youtube’s labeling system is that they have yet to label any videos on the Broadcasting Board of Governors’ YouTube channel. The BBG is a US Government agency that operates several pro-US media outlets abroad. Thus far, Youtube has begun labeling content coming from BBG operated news platforms such as Radio Free Asia, yet they have not labeled one video on BBG’s actual channel, including a video advertising for a BBG operated news organization in the Middle East called the Middle East Broadcasting Network, and a video about protests in Iran.

The BBG itself exemplifies the increasingly blurred lines between public and private spheres in the United States, especially in the realm of news media. For example, Rex Tillerson, while he was the CEO of Exxon, became the ex officio board member of BBG in 2004 shortly after the US invasion of Iraq. Currently, the BBG board of directors touts several pro-corporate board members. For example, the current chairman of the board of the BBG is Kenneth Weinstein, former head of the Heritage Foundation’s “Government Reform Program” (“Government reform” in Heritage Foundation-speak means the elimination of the parts of government serving the public interest). Beyond an analysis of the BBG, the mere fact of the pervasiveness of regulatory capture or the domination of the organs of US government by corporate power renders Youtube’s myopic sense of the public/private dichotomy, which constitutes the logical basis of their labeling system, completely untenable.

If YouTube actually wants to start a media literacy campaign they ought to take the following steps:

• State a clear and transparent basis to the reasoning behind their labeling system.
• Hire qualified people such as journalism scholars and propaganda historians to create a labeling system that accurately reflects the influence of power on media, rather than simply linking viewers to a Wikipedia page.
• Stage public events and conversations about how big tech and social media platforms can help facilitate media literacy and uphold democratic values.

YouTube does deserve some praise. They are currently seeking to better their labeling system by asking for public feedback. If YouTube wants to take responsibility for upholding democratic values such as media literacy and a free press, it is important that they continue to engage and to respond to the public. My feedback, as I demonstrated, is that Youtube’s effort at a media literacy campaign fails terribly in terms of consistency. If it ought to exist at all, Youtube’s labeling system needs a lot of rethinking and revision.


Clay Hurand

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Organizer, writer, spray artist, and Voices from the Grassroots podcast host.


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State Terrorism: A Genocidal Tool of Social Control

An article that explores the culture of fear as a tool for establishing the Power of a capitalist, neocolonial, and genocidal governmental system.

From Mirna Wabi-Sabi

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Lapa, Rio de Janeiro (Photo by Laura Cantal).

“Just as the Indian was branded a savage beast to justify his exploitation, so those who have sought social guerrillas, or terrorists, or drug dealers, or whatever the current term of art may be.” (Piero Gleijeses, as cited by Noam Chomsky)

The culture of fear has been part of Brazilian life for many years, most recently exemplified by the dictatorial military regime of the 1960-80s. To generate this fear in the population, the State used terrorist tactics to impose its control, such as censorship, murder, physical and psychological torture. State terrorism is vastly recorded as a phenomenon of governments that have formed from revolutionary factions. What is recorded is only a fraction of reality, and the little recorded is an interpretation of a small fraction of the population: a white elite.

Chomsky is an example of a white intellectual elite who succeeded in elevating the theories of Latin Americans on the topic of “genocidal and dictatorial democracy” (1996). In the same way Sartre helped elevate Fanon’s work, so we can not ignore our reliance on white people to inscribe Other thinkers in history. With or without recognition and records, State terrorism still exists today, and it’s not motivated by revolutionary interests, but instead by the reactionary interests of the elites and the preservation of the status quo.

The CIA’s supposedly secret 1969 document, The Situation in Brazil, describes the continuity of US political manipulation and praises the economic development brought about by the military dictatorship. All the men concurring describe the preliminary symptoms of the insurgency as “sporadic urban terrorism” executed by “disorganized” and “weak” “revolutionary fanatics”. At the same time, the opposition being “demoralized” through “censorship” and “oppression” is only considered an effective strategy to prevent the rise of a symbol of resistance.

Today in the United States, the categorization of ‘terrorism’ is somewhat recognized as inconsistent and racist: Arabs “are,” and white people are not. Nevertheless, being black and angry has been criminalized by so-called “Black Identity Extremists” being labeled terrorists. It’s necessary to recognize terrorist acts of the State in order to avoid racist inconsistencies such as ‘black people’ and ‘Arabs’ ‘terrorize,’ while the government and the police don’t (a clear example of institutionalized racism). To dissect this racist double standard we can look at the media as an instrument of cultural manipulation, and at what the motivation behind this manipulation is.

When the media reports, it also records history and influences opinions. There is an excess of sensationalist reports of crimes committed by poor black people, which generates widespread anxiety. The streets of Salvador are soaked with fear and remain empty at night, a desolation which in turn leads to more danger, and this way a vicious cycle is sustained.

“Today in Salvador from 8:00 p.m. it’s rare to find people strolling around in most of the neighborhoods.” (Report of a local from Salvador)

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Footbridge around 7pm in Stiep; Salvador, Brazil (Photo by Mirna Wabi-Sabi).

The motivation behind sensationalism is not only grabbing and expanding an audience, it is also feeding the culture of fear. This culture of fear creates a pretext for military police violence, for the racist devaluation of black lives, and consequently for the genocide of black people in poor communities. The “excess contingent” that does not benefit the capitalist system can be exterminated under the pretext of protecting the supposedly peaceful and non-criminal bourgeois white life.

The unstated and unrecorded reports are the ones from those who are devalued for not benefiting the system. The culture of fear itself has great pro-system power, it institutionalizes social control, street dynamics, product sales, and urban development. Most parts of Salvador seem to have been built for cars since many people are afraid to walk the streets. Shopping Malls, fashion, security, and segregation are profitable industries that rely on fear, they were created to benefit the bourgeoisie, and they symbolize the rebranding of apartheid.

Why do white people hide in fear and fail to rupture with this system, while others are mass murdered? White innocence is not really naive, it’s deliberate. Because in this deliberate innocence we can preserve our advantage while at the same time not be considered a racist. Which is an extremely cruel thing to do, because we destroy with one hand what we build with the other.

It hurts to recognize the violence to which we are accessories, but it hurts more for the foremost recipients of this violence. We have to see the problem clearly in order to begin solving it, and those who seek genocide as a solution to the failure of capitalism will undoubtedly be our enemies.

“The army working side by side with the military police” (Quote and photo by Laura Cantal).

Regarding Women

Considering that the Brazilian government deploys military forces to attack its own people, the so-called Nation this war aims to protect is not only white but also male. Women in particular are afraid to walk alone on the streets after sunset. Women are even afraid to drive their cars alone. They disguise themselves as men with caps, the wealthier women hire male drivers, and many just don’t go out at all. Needing men to protect women from other men is not a solution to patriarchal violence, it’s a perpetuation of it.

Trans women are not even safe at hospitals (TW: transphobic violence), much less on the streets. Even though there has been steady growth of empowering media representation, and a strong protective community, Brazil has had horrific records of transphobic violence.

Whenever a black child is murdered by the military police, they leave mothers and other family members completely devastated and hopeless. Their endless pain is exacerbated by the impunity, and by the continuous presence of the police in their communities and around other black children.

State terrorism affects all women; white, black, trans, rich or poor, though some more than others. I believe that acknowledging the urgency of this problem and coming together to solve it will finally lead to changes in this world. Coming together means listening to the voices of the silenced, not enabling oppression whenever you can with small daily acts of resistance, denouncing the army, opposing borders, and not waiting for ready-made solutions. It’s best to devise your own strategies which are most effective in your own context, because if you want a boss telling you what you need to do then maybe this is the moment to reevaluate what anarchy means to you. In the words of Tina Fey in Bossypants:

“When people say, “You really, really must” do something, it means you don’t really have to. No one ever says, “You really, really must deliver the baby during labor.” When it’s true, it doesn’t need to be said.”

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Photo by Laura Cantal

PS: Brazil is not the only country being lead by genocidal white men right now, so I hope you don’t finish this article feeling sorry for a ‘developing nation’. We are all connected and we are all responsible

Editor’s note: A previous version of this article was published in Portuguese in the first edition of the Salvador based anarchist magazine Enemy of the Queen.


Mirna Wabi-Sabi

Mirna is an intersectional feminist and decolonial activist from Brazil currently investigating Indigenous heritage. She publishes zines (Something Printed for Reading), and organizes educational events (DIY Workshop).


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On Unity And Power

When we are unified, when we stand together, the vast horde that is The People, there would be no way of stopping us. The state knows this, and thus the only way to stop it is to distract us with infighting, brainwashing, and financial manipulation, to not let it happen in the first place.

From Emma Kathryn

 

In my last essay, I spoke of recognising the tools that divide us, which you can find here.

Since then, and as is often the case, some of the comments got me thinking about unity and affinity and how these concepts can be applied to the good fight.

Affinity with anything is great. When you find someone or a group of someones with whom you just click, who are like soul brothers and sisters, then that is awesome. It’s natural to stick by, stand with and fight with and for those people.

It is more difficult to stand with others with whom you may not know, or whose suffering and oppression does not affect you, when their rights and lives are under attack.

When another’s suffering doesn’t affect us, when it is seen as a snippet on the evening news, when people are so tired from the hours of graft, when family time is squeezed in between those short few precious hours between getting home, doing chores and bed before the cycle begins again, it is no wonder it is easier to turn over. To watch some mindless reality TV. To enjoy the short-lived thrill of spending money we don’t have on shit we don’t need. To switch off.

Sometimes we feel helpless. What can we do as individuals against the tidal wave of shit that this world faces, nearly all of it man-made?

When I talk about unity, I do so with the meaning that it is standing with others, even when they are not in our family, friendship, or any other group. It’s about standing with strangers when they’re under oppression, even though their oppression has no effect at all upon our lives. It’s about standing up against the corruption of state and of capitalism, even when survival is not a struggle for you.

It’s about not being divided by petty shit.

How many times do we get involved in online debates and arguments that really do not mean anything? What I mean by this is that there are so many of these discussions, where people are listening, not with an ear to really understand the other perspective (which would be a good thing), but instead to come back with a witty or clever sounding comment that refutes what the other has said, and with various links to back it up.

To and fro these discussions go, and people get so hot-headed, because they are sure in their very soul that they are correct, and therefore, the other must be wrong. It’s an argument that goes round and round with nothing ever coming from it only more dislike, sometimes even hatred. Division.

They are pointless because they achieve nothing. Absolutely nothing. Now, don’t get me wrong, I’m not saying that all online debates go this way, but many do. And often times, the viewpoints or opinions and beliefs of those arguing aren’t really all that far removed from one another.

What is often lacking is genuine, intelligent discourse. The free and open exchange of ideas and opinions between people and  groups can only be a good thing, can only lead to genuine understanding, but what often happens is that people argue over side issues, or try to gloss over them.

An example of this can be seen when I, or others often speak out or write against the capitalist state, or the oppression of Peoples, or the devastation we cause the planet.

Some think, that because I call for an end to unfair systems that crush the many for the benefit of the few, that I must mean that I want to put another system in charge of us. That we must all be equally poor, or that the state becomes a workers state where we are all equally oppressed.

I would no more have those systems than the one we are currently under.

It’s not about handing power over us to one group or another, but seizing it for ourselves. It’s not about voting left or right, here in Britain, Conservatives or Labour. They are both different sides of the same coin. Those politicians are not like us, indeed, I often think what it is that makes someone want power over others. It takes a special kind of arsehole. Most of them have never had real jobs, outside of the bubble of government. They ‘streamline’ the education system, cutting the budgets, but you can guarantee their kids don’t attend the local comprehensive high school. They are forever cutting the NHS, again always spinning the lie they are delivering better value for money, but you can bet they have private healthcare. Their lies and duplicity are evident.

Oh yes, I am sure there are those that enter politics because they want to help others, but those individuals are few and far between. The big guns, the cabinet members. Those who make decisions about how others should live are not like us. They think they are untouchable, that they are above the laws that apply to the rest of us. And yet they abuse their power. In the last few weeks, Parliament has been rocked by sex scandals, stories of sexual abuse and harassment covered up or totally ignored.

No, it’s not about handing power to others who would use it against us, who would abuse it. It’s not about replacing the ones at the bottom now with others. It’s about taking power back for ourselves.

I believe this starts with unity.

When we can stand together, and look out for those who are different, in whatever way, to ourselves, then we can begin to take back power.

If we’re not busy arguing amongst ourselves about which political party has done the most damage, and instead recognise the ploy for what it is, we can focus our attentions on the things that do matter, that do make a difference.

So what system should be in place then?

One where people are put first. One where people can go to work and not have to struggle to live, to survive. One where the laws are for protection of the people, and not for big business and corporations. One where people are put before profit and property. One where people are not discriminated against, where equality means equality for all people. One where nature is given the respect she deserves. That’ll do for starters.

I don’t know how we get there today, but I believe it starts with unity.

When we are unified, when we stand together, the vast horde that is The People, there would be no way of stopping us. The state knows this, and thus the only way to stop it is to distract us with infighting, brainwashing, and financial manipulation, to not let it happen in the first place.

How many of us work full-time hours, or as many as we can get, how many parents both work and still can’t afford to cover the basics of living, too tired to do anything else other than scroll through social media or watch mindless TV once the kids are in bed? How many of us worry about work, how many of us are on zero hours contracts or cannot get enough hours at work because the business wants to cut costs, doesn’t want to pay the extra tax? All of these things are distractions, all keep us separate, and harden us against the suffering of others because it is difficult to see past our own suffering, the unfairness faced by others because we too are treated unfairly.

Unity is the key to any true revolutions, to any meaningful change. Surely it has to be. If we are not unified, then how will change come, if the vast majority are silent. It only takes silence for evil and wrong doing to flourish. How many choose to ignore the abuse of others, even though they find it abhorrent, because it doesn’t affect them. It’s ‘none of their business’.

We must find unity if we are to effect any real change in this world.


Emma Kathryn

My name is Emma Kathryn, an eclectic witch, my path is a mixture of traditional European witchcraft, voodoo and obeah, a mixture representing my heritage. I live in the middle of England in a little town in Nottinghamshire, with my partner, two teenage sons and two crazy dogs, Boo and Dexter. When not working in a bookshop full time, I like to spend time with my family outdoors, with the dogs. And weaving magick, of course!

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Recognising The Tools That Divide Us

Recognising the tools that are used to divide us is the first step in fighting back.

From Emma Kathryn


I often say that the only real freedoms we have left to us are what we think and how we spend our money.

I am wrong.

Our spending habits are dictated largely by our needs in life. Make the cost of living, the cost of surviving higher, then you are already well on the way to snatching this freedom from us. How many of us, in so-called rich, first world nations, struggle to survive, struggle to eat, to heat our homes, to even keep the roofs over our heads? How much of our income is left over, so that we may enjoy ourselves in a world where everything costs?

For many, this freedom does not exist, and for those whom it does, it is eroded daily. If you can’t even afford to survive, if you can’t afford to buy the basics necessary to survive, then you are not free.

We are sold the dream of normality: our own house, a car or two, branded clothes and package holidays. How many people aspire to such a mundane existence? How many think this is living the dream? Any deviance from this norm, from this mindless, thoughtless norm is regarded with suspicion. If you don’t achieve these things, you’re a failure. It doesn’t matter that this lifestyle is financed for many by debt: car finance; mortgages; credit cards and loans.

It doesn’t matter, so long as it looks like we’ve ‘made it’, that it looks like we are successful.

We are the freaks, those of us who know our true nature and strive for our own dreams and wants. We who shun this false norm, who forge our own paths, we are the weirdos, we free thinkers are the odd ones. Embrace your weirdness, your otherness–for it is this that will keep you free.

Our thoughts, how we think and what we think, are the last bastions of true freedom, and thus, the tools of state, of capitalism seek to destroy this. Thoughts are powerful things. The greatest (and the worst) achievements of the human race all ascend from mans ability to think.

If you take a moment to consider man, as an animal, he is a poor specimen. By rights, we shouldn’t have survived as a species. We aren’t particularly fast, we aren’t physically strong, we have no fur to survive the cold, we’re physically slow. The list of man’s inadequacies to survive in the natural world is long. And yet we dominate the planet, are at the top of the food chain. If not for our brains, for the power of our thoughts, who knows what would have become of mankind! Thoughts are powerful things. If in doubt ask any occultist!

So to dismantle the tools of state, of capitalism then, we must familiarise ourselves with the tools they would use to control us.

The attack on what and how we think is insidious, sneaking in to all aspects of life. Schools are failing our children, so instead of educating them, kids are taught to pass tests, the pass rate and Ofstead (a government body that inspects state schools) rating of the school more important than teaching the children quality knowledge, how to think for themselves. Instead individuality is crushed.

And it’s not the teachers fault! Here in the UK, teachers and successive governments (all governments too, left and right) are always at loggerheads. Teachers increasingly have to teach children things that were traditionally taught in the home, through example and experience and just general parenting. There is often talk of extending the school day in line with working patterns, and in this world where both parents must work full-time but quality childcare is unaffordable, it sounds like a good idea. The erosion of the family (and that’s family in any form!) is not a conspiracy theory!

Then there’s advertising and television programming (they’re called programs for a reason!), all hinting at what we should feel in regards to this stimuli or that. Opinion pieces and chat shows, morning TV, the news, are all designed to elicit certain responses. It’s like a drip effect.

What actually spurred me to write this piece, though, was a government report into race inequality that was recently published. This particular report, the ‘race disparity audit’, looked at the link between races and wealth and privilege factors, including the ownership of homes. The report found that white British people are more likely to own their own homes and be in employment than those from ethnic minorities.

I stumbled upon this story whilst scrolling through Facebook, and though I know I shouldn’t have, I couldn’t help but read the comments section. I had hoped to see people call the report out for what it so blatantly was – a piece designed to invoke difference and friction. What the report ‘found’ was nothing new, offered no new insight, no insight at all really, and only served to make people defensive. Defensive people fight back.

Whilst people were busy blaming one group or another for being ‘lazy’ or ‘privileged’ (divide and conquer indeed!), they were missing the obvious flaws of the report. For one thing, in Britain, and as far as I have experienced, issues of race and culture can be quite complicated. For example, the report looked at White British, Black, and Asian, all seemingly very concrete, very different subsections of society. But what the report fails to do, or doesn’t make clear, or outright ignores, is that such differences, in real life, are often very blurred. For example, I’m mixed race (White British and Afro Caribbean if you’re wondering), and British. Half of my family are white, the other half black, where would someone like myself fit into it all? And that’s the problem, issues like this aren’t clear-cut, are multifaceted, with many contributing factors. Reports like this are designed to cause friction between friends, neighbours, and sometimes even family.

Reports like this are designed to distract us. Whilst we are busy arguing amongst ourselves about man-made castes and classes, we aren’t scrutinising the government. I think people sometimes forget that governments are meant to be our representatives, are meant to govern for us, not over us. I think governments have forgotten this as well. Or maybe they haven’t, hence the need to divide us all over shit that doesn’t mean anything and doesn’t matter.

And distract us they do! How many pointless online arguments are there between groups and people, who often times have quite similar beliefs and opinions? Instead of uniting, people get caught up on the semantics of a concept, arguing obscure points that mean absolutely fuck all in the real world (what I mean by the real world is the everyday lives of the people who just want to get on and live their lives ). We argue over the most trivial things, blame one another for the problems created by an unfair system.

This separation of people, this ploy to distract us can be seen in all aspects of modern life, personal and professional. At work recently, my manager had to do a progression plan with a head office type. We have a small staff in the shop, and we all get on, are a team. In an employee survey, our manager received full compliments from us, his staff, and instead of this being seen as a good thing, the manager was told it was too much! That he shouldn’t be so popular amongst the other plebs, because that is what we are, what we are seen as.

When the plebs, the people, (because we are all plebs in the eyes of government)  unite, it spells danger, not only in work, but in life generally.

Any kind of unification of the people is a danger to governments. Look at Catalonia! Look how other governments around the world denounce the Catalonian people and government. It reminds me of the Brexit campaign, when other governments threatened us with no trade agreements, that we as a country would be ‘at the back of the queue’. Fear is a motivating factor, and as such, another tool that governments use to separate us.

It’s hard to stick to your guns when your threatened with this and that, harder still when you have children or others who depend on you. It is scary, change and the unknown, but we are powerful, we must stand united, all people, from all backgrounds. It’s the only chance we have for any real change.

And so, an important aspect of the good fight is to learn to recognise the tools the state would use to divide us. Learn to recognise media reports that aim to set one group against another. Do your own research, form your own opinions based on solid research because media reports often try and portray a certain perspective, elicit a particular response. Get out and about in your community, because a good, strong community cannot be turned in on itself, neighbour will not turn against neighbour when they know one another. Start at the grassroots level, because everything stems from there.

We are powerful things, and we must learn to recognise the tools and tactics capitalism, and thus The State, would use against us. Recognising the tools that are used to divide us is the first step in fighting back.


Emma Kathryn

My name is Emma Kathryn, an eclectic witch, my path is a mixture of traditional European witchcraft, voodoo and obeah, a mixture representing my heritage. I live in the middle of England in a little town in Nottinghamshire, with my partner, two teenage sons and two crazy dogs, Boo and Dexter. When not working in a bookshop full time, I like to spend time with my family outdoors, with the dogs. And weaving magick, of course!

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